PENGARUH STRATEGI PROBLEM BASED LEARNING (PBL) TERINTEGRASI READING, QUESTIONING, AND ANSWERING (RQA) PADA PERKULIAHAN BIOLOGI DASAR TERHADAP MOTIVASI BELAJAR, KETERAMPILAN METAKOGNITIF, HASIL BELAJAR KOGNITIF, RETENSI, DAN KARAKTER MAHASISWA BERKEMAMPUAN AKADEMIK BERBEDA

Bahri, Arsad (2016) PENGARUH STRATEGI PROBLEM BASED LEARNING (PBL) TERINTEGRASI READING, QUESTIONING, AND ANSWERING (RQA) PADA PERKULIAHAN BIOLOGI DASAR TERHADAP MOTIVASI BELAJAR, KETERAMPILAN METAKOGNITIF, HASIL BELAJAR KOGNITIF, RETENSI, DAN KARAKTER MAHASISWA BERKEMAMPUAN AKADEMIK BERBEDA. S3 thesis, Universitas Negeri Malang.

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ABSTRAK Kata Kunci: PBL, RQA, kemampuan akademik, motivasi belajar, keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar kognitif, retensi, dan karakter Strategi, model atau pola perkuliahan merupakan aspek penting dalam proses pembelajaran. Strategi pembelajaran konvensional sebagian besar masih mendominasi pola perkuliahan di Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Negeri Makassar. Strategi tersebut belum optimal dalam membangkitkan motivasi dan minat belajar mahasiswa, memberdayakan keterampilan metakognitif, meningkatkan retensi, dan mengembangkan karakter mahasiswa. Problem Based Learning (PBL) merupakan strategi pembelajaran konstruktivistik yang berpotensi membangkitkan motivasi dan minat belajar mahasiswa, memberdayakan keterampilan metakognitif, meningkatkan retensi, dan mengembangkan karakter mahasiswa. Penggunaan PBL telah mengungkapkan berbagai kelebihan, namun terdapat kekurangan dari strategi pembelajaran ini. Diperlukan suatu strategi pembelajaran yang diharapkan mampu mengatasi kekurangan PBL seperti strategi pembelajaran Reading Questioning and Aswering (RQA). RQA merupakan strategi yang dikembangkan atas dasar kenyataan bahwa hampir semua mahasiswa tidak membaca materi kuliah terkait perkuliahan yang akan datang, yang berakibat strategi perkuliahan yang dirancang sulit terlaksana dan pada akhirnya pemahaman terhadap materi perkuliahan menjadi rendah. Integrasi PBL dan RQA membentuk strategi PBLRQA. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan pengaruh PBL, RQA, PBLRQA, dan pembelajaran konvensional terhadap motivasi belajar, keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar kognitif, retensi, dan karakter mahasiswa berkemampuan akademik berbeda pada perkuliahan Biologi Dasar, serta menjelaskan hubungan antara keterampilan metakognitif dengan hasil belajar kognitif, antara keterampilan metakognitif dengan retensi, dan antara hasil belajar kognitif dengan karakter mahasiswa. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan desain pretest-posttest non equivalent control group design pola faktorial 4 x 2. Variabel bebas dalam penelitian ini adalah strategi pembelajaran yang terdiri atas 4 jenis yaitu strategi PBL, RQA, PBLRQA, dan pembelajaran konvensional, sedangkan kemampuan akademik yang terdiri atas kemampuan akademik atas dan bawah sebagai variabel moderator. Variabel terikatnya adalah motivasi belajar, keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar kognitif, retensi, dan karakter mahasiswa. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan angket motivasi dan minat belajar, tes keterampilan metakognitif terintegrasi dengan hasil belajar kognitif, Metacognitive Skill Inventory (MSI), angket dan lembar observasi perilaku berkarakter, dan angket tanggapan mahasiswa. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan inferensial dengan anakova dan regresi. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa (1) strategi pembelajaran berpengaruh terhadap motivasi dan minat belajar, keterampilan metakognitif yang diukur dengan menggunakan rubrik, hasil belajar kognitif, retensi, dan karakter mahasiswa pada perkuliahan Biologi Dasar, tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap keterampilan metakognitif yang diukur dengan MSI. Strategi PBLRQA berpotensi membangkitkan motivasi belajar, memberdayakan keterampilan metakognitif, meningkatkan hasil belajar kognitif, mempertahankan retensi, dan mengembangkan karakter mahasiswa, dibandingkan dengan strategi PBL, RQA, dan pembelajaran konvensional (2) kemampuan akademik berpengaruh terhadap motivasi dan minat belajar, keterampilan metakognitif yang diukur dengan rubrik, hasil belajar kognitif, retensi, dan karakter mahasiswa pada perkuliahan Biologi Dasar, tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap keterampilan metakognitif yang diukur dengan MSI. Mahasiswa berkemampuan akademik atas memiliki Persentasee perubahan nilai motivasi dan minat belajar, keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar kognitif, retensi dan karakter lebih tinggi daripada mahasiswa berkemampuan akademik bawah, (3) interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dengan kemampuan akademik berpengaruh terhadap motivasi belajar, keterampilan metakognitif yang diukur dengan MSI, retensi mahasiswa pada perkuliahan Biologi Dasar, tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap minat belajar, keterampilan metakognitif yang diukur dengan rubrik, hasil belajar kognitif, dan karakter mahasiswa, (4) ada hubungan antara keterampilan metakognitif dengan hasil belajar kognitif mahasiswa; ada hubungan antara keterampilan metakognitif dengan retensi mahasiswa; tetapi tidak ada hubungan antara hasil belajar kognitif dengan karakter mahasiswa pada perkuliahan Biologi Dasar. Temuan pada penelitian ini berupa: 1) sintaks strategi PBLRQA, 2) skor terkoreksi variabel motivasi belajar, keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar kognitif, retensi, dan karakter tertinggi terdapat pada mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi PBLRQA, 3) penggunaan angket untuk mengukur variabel keterampilan metakognitif kurang tepat dan kurang akurat merekam keterampilan metakognitif mahasiswa, 4) persentasee peningkatan motivasi dan minat belajar, keterampilan metakognitif yang diukur dengan rubrik, hasil belajar kognitif, retensi, dan karakter mahasiswa berkemampuan akademik atas lebih besar daripada mahasiswa berkemampuan akademik bawah, 5) strategi pembelajaran inovatif seperti PBLRQA cenderung lebih tepat dalam meningkatkan motivasi belajar, keterampilan metakognitif, retensi, dan karakter mahasiswa berkemampuan akademik atas, dan 6) terkait uji hubungan, terlihat bahwa pada keempat strategi pembelajaran yang berbeda, keterampilan metakognitif memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan hasil belajar kognitif dan retensi mahasiswa, sedangkan hasil belajar kognitif tidak berhubungan dengan karakter mahasiswa. Berdasarkan kemanfaatan dari penelitian ini, disarankan agar strategi PBLRQA dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu dasar pengembangan strategi pembelajaran pada Pendidikan Biologi, dan dasar pertimbangan dalam menetapkan kebijakan strategi pembelajaran pada kelompok mata kuliah kependidikan dan keahlian. Bagi dosen, agar dapat menerapkan strategi PBLRQA khususnya pada mata kuliah Biologi Dasar.   ABSTRACT Bahri, Arsad. 2016. Effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Integrated with Reading, Questioning, and Answering (RQA) Learning Strategies in Basic Biology on Learning Motivation, Metacognitive Skills, Cognitive Learning Outcome, Retention, and Character of Students with Different Academic Level. Dissertation. Doctoral Program on Biology Education, Postgraduate, State University of Malang. Advisor (I) Prof. Dr. Aloysius Duran Corebima, M.Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. agr. H. Mohamad Amin, S. Pd, M.Si, and (III) Prof. Dr. Hj. Siti Zubaidah, M.Pd. Keywords: PBL, RQA, academic level, learning motivation, metacognitive skills, cognitive learning outcome, retention, and character Strategies, models or patterns of lectures are important aspect in the learning process. Conventional learning strategies were still dominate the pattern of lectures at the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Makassar. These strategy was not optimal in raising student motivation and interest in learning, empowering metacognitive skills, increase retention, and developing students’ character. Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a constructivist learning strategy that could potentially raise student motivation and interest in learning, empowering metacognitive skills, increase retention, and developing students’ character. The implementation of PBL has revealed various benefits, but there was also some weakness. Thus, it required a learning strategy which is expected to cover that weakness of PBL as Questioning, Reading, and Aswering (RQA) learning strategy. RQA is a learning strategy developed based on the the fact that almost all students do not read the upcoming lecture materials, causing failure of learning strategy planned and finally the students’ comprehension becomes low. Integration PBL and RQA is called PBLRQA leraning strategy. The aim of research was to investigate the effect of PBL, RQA, PBLRQA, and conventional learning on learning motivation, metacognitive skills, cognitive learning outcome, retention, and character of students with different academic level in Basic Biology, as well as to determine the correlation between metacognitive skills with cognitive learning outcome, between metacognitive skills with retention, and between cognitive learning outcome with students’ character. This research was carried out in a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design and factorial 4x2. The independent variable are learning strategy included PBL strategies, RQA, PBLRQA, and conventional learning, and academic level as moderator variable included higher and lower academic level. The dependent variable is the learning motivation, metacognitive skills, cognitive learning outcome, retention, and students’ character. The sample of research was four Basic Biology classes in Faculty of Mathemathic and Natural Science, State University of Makassar. Data were collected by using a questionnaire of learning motivation and interest, metacognitive skills test integrated with the cognitive learning outcomes, metacognitive skills inventory (MSI), questionnaires and observation sheets of character behaviors, and students’ feedback questionnaire. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential with analysis of covariate and regression. The results of the research concluded that (1) learning strategies affect the learning motivation and interest, metacognitive skills were measured using a rubric, cognitive learning outcome, retention, and the students’ character in Basic Biology, but has no effect on metacognitive skills as measured by MSI. PBLRQA strategy potential to raise the learning motivation, empowering metacognitive skills, improve cognitive learning outcome, maintain retention, and develop the students’ character, compared with PBL, RQA, and conventional learning, (2) academic levels affect the learning motivation and interest, metacognitive skills being measured the rubric, cognitive learning outcome, retention, and students’ character in Basic Biology, but has no effect on metacognitive skills as measured by MSI. Students on high academic level has the percentage change in the value of learning motivation and interest, metacognitive skills, cognitive learning outcome, retention, and character higher than the students on lower academic level, (3) the interaction between learning strategy and academic level affect the learning motivation, metacognitive skills being measured with MSI, and students’ retention in Basic Biology, but has not effect the learning interest, metacognitive skills as measured by the rubric, cognitive learning outcome, and students’ character, (4) there is a correlation between metacognitive skills with cognitive learning outcome; there is a correlation between metacognitive skills with students’ retention; but there is no correlation between the cognitive learning outcome with the students’ character in Basic Biology. The findings of study were: 1) the phases of PBLRQA strategy, 2) the corrected score of learning motivation, metacognitive skills, the cognitive learning outcome, retention, and the characters were the highest in students who were taught by PBLRQA strategy, 3) the use of inventory to measure metacognitive skills are less precise and less accurate record metacognitive skills of students, 4) the increasing percentage of learning motivation and interest, metacognitive skills as measured by the rubric, the cognitive learning outcome, retention, and the character of students on higher academic level is greater than the lower academic level, 5) the innovative learning strategies like PBLRQA tend to be more precise in improving learning motivation, metacognitive skills, retention, and the character of students on higher academic level, and 6) related to the correlation test, it seemed that in the four different learning strategies, metacognitive skills has a significant correlation with cognitive learning outcome and students’ retention, whereas the cognitive learning outcome was not related to the character of students. Based on the benefits of this study, it is suggested that in order PBLRQA strategies can be used as a basis for the development of learning strategies in Biology Education, and the basic consideration in setting policy on the learning strategies group educational and expertise courses. For the lecturers, in order to implement the PBLRQA strategy especially in Basic Biology course.

Item Type: Thesis (S3)
Subjects: FMIPA > PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI - (S1)
Divisions: FAKULTAS MIPA
Depositing User: Arsad Bahri
Date Deposited: 11 Nov 2018 02:07
Last Modified: 11 Nov 2018 02:09
URI: http://eprints.unm.ac.id/id/eprint/11381

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